Blockchain

ethernaut

Hello Ethernaut

  • Solve
    通过 contract.abi 查看所有函数,通过 contract.password 获取密码, contract.authenticate 提交密码
  • Solidity Code
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

contract Instance {

  string public password;
  uint8 public infoNum = 42;
  string public theMethodName = 'The method name is method7123949.';
  bool private cleared = false;

  // constructor
  constructor(string memory _password) {
    password = _password;
  }

  function info() public pure returns (string memory) {
    return 'You will find what you need in info1().';
  }

  function info1() public pure returns (string memory) {
    return 'Try info2(), but with "hello" as a parameter.';
  }

  function info2(string memory param) public pure returns (string memory) {
    if(keccak256(abi.encodePacked(param)) == keccak256(abi.encodePacked('hello'))) {
      return 'The property infoNum holds the number of the next info method to call.';
    }
    return 'Wrong parameter.';
  }

  function info42() public pure returns (string memory) {
    return 'theMethodName is the name of the next method.';
  }

  function method7123949() public pure returns (string memory) {
    return 'If you know the password, submit it to authenticate().';
  }

  function authenticate(string memory passkey) public {
    if(keccak256(abi.encodePacked(passkey)) == keccak256(abi.encodePacked(password))) {
      cleared = true;
    }
  }

  function getCleared() public view returns (bool) {
    return cleared;
  }
}

Fallback

  • Challenge
Look carefully at the contract's code below.
You will beat this level if
- you claim ownership of the contract
- you reduce its balance to 0
Things that might help
- How to send ether when interacting with an ABI
- How to send ether outside of the ABI
- Converting to and from wei/ether units (see help() command)
- Fallback methods
  • Solve

调用 fallback (合约可以有一个未命名的函数,无参数,无返回值)

  • 调用合约中不存在的函数
  • 当合约收到以太币
  • 触发 fallback 函数,改变合约所有者,contribute 函数的条件几乎不可能达到,但是 fallback 中的 contributions[msg.sender] > 0 需要通过 contribute() 来实现
contract.contribute({value:1})
contract.sendTransaction({value:1}) // 也可以通过 MeteMask 发送
// 此时 owner 为我们自己
contract.withdraw();
// 将钱全部转回
  • Solidity Code
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

contract Fallback {

  mapping(address => uint) public contributions;
  address public owner;

  constructor() {
    owner = msg.sender;
    contributions[msg.sender] = 1000 * (1 ether);
  }

  modifier onlyOwner {
        require(
            msg.sender == owner,
            "caller is not the owner"
        );
        _;
    }

  function contribute() public payable {
    require(msg.value < 0.001 ether);
    contributions[msg.sender] += msg.value;
    if(contributions[msg.sender] > contributions[owner]) {
      owner = msg.sender;
    }
  }

  function getContribution() public view returns (uint) {
    return contributions[msg.sender];
  }

  function withdraw() public onlyOwner {
    payable(owner).transfer(address(this).balance);
  }

  receive() external payable {
    require(msg.value > 0 && contributions[msg.sender] > 0);
    owner = msg.sender;
  }
}

Fallout

  • Solve其中构造函数名称拼写错误,Fallout -> Fal1out 导致成为 public 函数,任何都可以调用
contract.Fal1out()
  1. Solidity Code
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.6.0;

import 'openzeppelin-contracts-06/math/SafeMath.sol';

contract Fallout {

  using SafeMath for uint256;
  mapping (address => uint) allocations;
  address payable public owner;


  /* constructor */
  function Fal1out() public payable {
    owner = msg.sender;
    allocations[owner] = msg.value;
  }

  modifier onlyOwner {
            require(
                msg.sender == owner,
                "caller is not the owner"
            );
            _;
        }

  function allocate() public payable {
    allocations[msg.sender] = allocations[msg.sender].add(msg.value);
  }

  function sendAllocation(address payable allocator) public {
    require(allocations[allocator] > 0);
    allocator.transfer(allocations[allocator]);
  }

  function collectAllocations() public onlyOwner {
    msg.sender.transfer(address(this).balance);
  }

  function allocatorBalance(address allocator) public view returns (uint) {
    return allocations[allocator];
  }
}

Coin Flip

  • Challenge
This is a coin flipping game where you need to build up your winning streak by guessing the outcome of a coin flip. To complete this level you'll need to use your psychic abilities to guess the correct outcome 10 times in a row.

  Things that might help

See the Help page above, section "Beyond the console"
  • Solidity Code
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

contract CoinFlip {

  uint256 public consecutiveWins;
  uint256 lastHash;
  uint256 FACTOR = 57896044618658097711785492504343953926634992332820282019728792003956564819968;

  constructor() {
    consecutiveWins = 0;
  }

  function flip(bool _guess) public returns (bool) {
    uint256 blockValue = uint256(blockhash(block.number - 1));

    if (lastHash == blockValue) {
      revert();
    }

    lastHash = blockValue;
    uint256 coinFlip = blockValue / FACTOR;
    bool side = coinFlip == 1 ? true : false;

    if (side == _guess) {
      consecutiveWins++;
      return true;
    } else {
      consecutiveWins = 0;
      return false;
    }
  }
}
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Source: github.com/k4yt3x/flowerhd
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